To check out the partnership between GC blogs and you can recombination speed i apply two tactics

(A) GC content variance around CO breakpoints (blue dots and line). The window 0 on the x-axis is the GC content of the breakpoints and the negative and positive values represent the distance away from the breakpoints. Each of these windows is defined as 2 kb sequence and the GC content is calculated for each window. The red dots and line are one of the GC content random samples simulated like the numbers of CO breakpoints (blue dot and line). After 10,000 repeats, not one of random samples is as extreme as the observed (blue line) (P <0.0001). (B) Relationship between recombination and GC content. When the chromosomes are dissected into 10 kb non-overlapping regions, recombination rate (cM/Mb) and GC content can be obtained for each of them. After the bins are sorted by the GC content, the windows are divided into 31 groups based on GC content (approximately 20% to 51%, 1% interval), and the average (and s.e.m.) recombination rates reported for each group.

In both we dissect the genome into 10 kb non-overlapping windows of which there are 19,297. First, we ask about the raw correlation between GC% and cM/Mb for these windows, which as expected is positive and significant (Spearman’s rho = 0.192; P <10 -15 ). Second, we wish to know the average effect of increasing one unit in either parameter on the other. Given the noise in the data (and given that current recombination rate need not imply the ancestral recombination rate) we approach this issue using a smoothing approach. We start by rank ordering all windows by GC content and then dividing them into blocks of 1% GC range, after excluding windows with more than 10% ‘N'. The resulting plot is highly skewed by bins with very high GC (55% to 58%) as these have very few data points (Additional file 1: Figure S10E) (the same outliers likely effect the raw correlation too). Removing these three results in a more consistent trend (Additional file 1: Figure S10F). This also suggests that below circa 20% GC the recombination rate is zero (Additional file 1: Figure S10F). Removing those with GC <20% and, more generally, any bins with fewer than 100 windows (all bins with GC < 20% have fewer than 100 windows) leaves 18,680 (96.8%) of the windows, these having a GC content between approximately 20% and 51%.

Relationship anywhere between recombination and you will GC-content

By the observance, we estimate you to definitely on average a-1 cm/Mb rise in recombination price is regarding the a boost in GC blogs of approximately 0.5%. Alternatively a-1% rise in GC posts represents a more or less dos cM/Mb increase in recombination rate. We finish that considering the noticeable rareness off NCO gene sales, about regarding the bee genome, extrapolation regarding GC blogs in order to average crossing-more rate hence is apparently justifiable, no less than to have GC articles over 20%. I note as well one in the tall GC content material the brand new recombination price could be over or underestimated. This may mirror a discordance anywhere between latest and you will earlier in the day recombination costs.

These are accustomed make Contour 4B, and therefore gift ideas a somewhat audio-100 % free (after smoothing) monotonic matchmaking between the two details

Crossing-more than rates is also of the nucleotide assortment, gene thickness, and you can backup matter type places (Figure S11-S13 inside Extra document 1) . Considering all of our removal of hetSNPs from research the second result is perhaps not trivially an effective CNV related artifact. Our very own fine-measure analyses let you know an optimistic correlation anywhere between nucleotide variety and you may recombination price anyway the brand new balances out-of 10, 100, 2 hundred, or five hundred kb succession window (Contour S11 in Additional file step 1). This bolsters early in the day analyses, certainly hence said the newest trend but think it is as non-high, while another stated a pattern anywhere between society genetic prices off recombination and you may genetic variety. The fresh pattern accords with the sense one to recombination explanations less Slope-Robertson interference hence permitting reduced rates away from hitchhiking and you will records choices, very helping higher diversity. We together with pick a powerful negative relationship anywhere between recombination and gene thickness (Profile S12 during the Even more document step 1) and you may a strong self-confident correlation ranging from recombination together with amount of multi-content regions in the some windows types (Figure S13 within the More file 1). The brand new relationship having CNVs was consistent with a job to possess low-allelic recombination generating duplications and you can deletions thru unequal crossing-over .